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Whole-genome sequencing of European autochthonous and commercial pig breeds allows the detection of signatures of selection for adaptation of genetic resources to different breeding and production systems.

TitleWhole-genome sequencing of European autochthonous and commercial pig breeds allows the detection of signatures of selection for adaptation of genetic resources to different breeding and production systems.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsBovo, S, Ribani, A, Muñoz, M, Alves, E, Araujo, JP, Bozzi, R, Čandek-Potokar, M, Charneca, R, Di Palma, F, Etherington, G, Fernández, AI, García, F, García-Casco, J, Karolyi, D, Gallo, M, Margeta, V, Martins, JManuel, Mercat, MJ, Moscatelli, G, Núñez, Y, Quintanilla, R, Radović, Č, Razmaite, V, Riquet, J, Savić, R, Schiavo, G, Usai, G, Utzeri, VJ, Zimmer, C, Óvilo, C, Fontanesi, L
JournalGenet Sel Evol
Volume52
Issue1
Pagination33
Date Published2020 Jun 26
ISSN1297-9686
KeywordsAcclimatization, Adaptation, Physiological, Algorithms, Animals, Breeding, Domestication, Europe, Female, Genome, Genomics, Genotype, Genotyping Techniques, Male, Models, Genetic, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Selection, Genetic, Swine, Whole Genome Sequencing
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Natural and artificial directional selection in cosmopolitan and autochthonous pig breeds and wild boars have shaped their genomes and resulted in a reservoir of animal genetic diversity. Signatures of selection are the result of these selection events that have contributed to the adaptation of breeds to different environments and production systems. In this study, we analysed the genome variability of 19 European autochthonous pig breeds (Alentejana, Bísara, Majorcan Black, Basque, Gascon, Apulo-Calabrese, Casertana, Cinta Senese, Mora Romagnola, Nero Siciliano, Sarda, Krškopolje pig, Black Slavonian, Turopolje, Moravka, Swallow-Bellied Mangalitsa, Schwäbisch-Hällisches Schwein, Lithuanian indigenous wattle and Lithuanian White old type) from nine countries, three European commercial breeds (Italian Large White, Italian Landrace and Italian Duroc), and European wild boars, by mining whole-genome sequencing data obtained by using a DNA-pool sequencing approach. Signatures of selection were identified by using a single-breed approach with two statistics [within-breed pooled heterozygosity (H) and fixation index (F)] and group-based F approaches, which compare groups of breeds defined according to external traits and use/specialization/type.

RESULTS: We detected more than 22 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 23 compared populations and identified 359 chromosome regions showing signatures of selection. These regions harbour genes that are already known or new genes that are under selection and relevant for the domestication process in this species, and that affect several morphological and physiological traits (e.g. coat colours and patterns, body size, number of vertebrae and teats, ear size and conformation, reproductive traits, growth and fat deposition traits). Wild boar related signatures of selection were detected across all the genome of several autochthonous breeds, which suggests that crossbreeding (accidental or deliberate) occurred with wild boars.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a catalogue of genetic variants of many European pig populations and identify genome regions that can explain, at least in part, the phenotypic diversity of these genetic resources.

DOI10.1186/s12711-020-00553-7
Alternate JournalGenet Sel Evol
PubMed ID32591011
PubMed Central IDPMC7318759
Grant List634476 / / Horizon 2020 /