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Genetic Variations and Differential DNA Methylation to Face Contrasted Climates in Small Ruminants: An Analysis on Traditionally-Managed Sheep and Goats.

TitleGenetic Variations and Differential DNA Methylation to Face Contrasted Climates in Small Ruminants: An Analysis on Traditionally-Managed Sheep and Goats.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsDenoyelle, L, de Villemereuil, P, Boyer, F, Khelifi, M, Gaffet, C, Alberto, F, Benjelloun, B, Pompanon, F
JournalFront Genet
Volume12
Pagination745284
Date Published2021
ISSN1664-8021
Abstract

The way in which living organisms mobilize a combination of long-term adaptive mechanisms and short-term phenotypic plasticity to face environmental variations is still largely unknown. In the context of climate change, understanding the genetic and epigenetic bases for adaptation and plasticity is a major stake for preserving genomic resources and the resilience capacity of livestock populations. We characterized both epigenetic and genetic variations by contrasting 22 sheep and 21 goats from both sides of a climate gradient, focusing on free-ranging populations from Morocco. We produced for each individual Whole-Genome Sequence at 12X coverage and MeDIP-Seq data, to identify regions under selection and those differentially methylated. For both species, the analysis of genetic differences (F) along the genome between animals from localities with high vs. low temperature annual variations detected candidate genes under selection in relation to environmental perception (5 genes), immunity (4 genes), reproduction (8 genes) and production (11 genes). Moreover, we found for each species one differentially methylated gene, namely AGPTA4 in goat and SLIT3 in sheep, which were both related, among other functions, to milk production and muscle development. In both sheep and goats, the comparison between genomic regions impacted by genetic and epigenetic variations suggests that climatic variations impacted similar biological pathways but different genes.

DOI10.3389/fgene.2021.745284
Alternate JournalFront Genet
PubMed ID34650601
PubMed Central IDPMC8508783