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Chicken adaptive response to low energy diet: main role of the hypothalamic lipid metabolism revealed by a phenotypic and multi-tissue transcriptomic approach.

TitleChicken adaptive response to low energy diet: main role of the hypothalamic lipid metabolism revealed by a phenotypic and multi-tissue transcriptomic approach.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsJehl, F, Désert, C, Klopp, C, Brenet, M, Rau, A, Leroux, S, Boutin, M, Lagoutte, L, Muret, K, Blum, Y, Esquerré, D, Gourichon, D, Burlot, T, Collin, A, Pitel, F, Benani, A, Zerjal, T, Lagarrigue, S
JournalBMC Genomics
Volume20
Issue1
Pagination1033
Date Published2019 Dec 30
ISSN1471-2164
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Production conditions of layer chicken can vary in terms of temperature or diet energy content compared to the controlled environment where pure-bred selection is undertaken. The aim of this study was to better understand the long-term effects of a 15%-energy depleted diet on egg-production, energy homeostasis and metabolism via a multi-tissue transcriptomic analysis. Study was designed to compare effects of the nutritional intervention in two layer chicken lines divergently selected for residual feed intake.

RESULTS: Chicken adapted to the diet in terms of production by significantly increasing their feed intake and decreasing their body weight and body fat composition, while their egg production was unchanged. No significant interaction was observed between diet and line for the production traits. The low energy diet had no effect on adipose tissue and liver transcriptomes. By contrast, the nutritional challenge affected the blood transcriptome and, more severely, the hypothalamus transcriptome which displayed 2700 differentially expressed genes. In this tissue, the low-energy diet lead to an over-expression of genes related to endocannabinoid signaling (CN1R, NAPE-PLD) and to the complement system, a part of the immune system, both known to regulate feed intake. Both mechanisms are associated to genes related polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis (FADS1, ELOVL5 and FADS2), like the arachidonic acid, a precursor of anandamide, a key endocannabinoid, and of prostaglandins, that mediate the regulatory effects of the complement system. A possible regulatory role of NR1H3 (alias LXRα) has been associated to these transcriptional changes. The low-energy diet further affected brain plasticity-related genes involved in the cholesterol synthesis and in the synaptic activity, revealing a link between nutrition and brain plasticity. It upregulated genes related to protein synthesis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation in the hypothalamus, suggesting reorganization in nutrient utilization and biological synthesis in this brain area.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed a complex transcriptome modulation in the hypothalamus of chicken in response to low-energy diet suggesting numerous changes in synaptic plasticity, endocannabinoid regulation, neurotransmission, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial activity and protein synthesis. This global transcriptomic reprogramming could explain the adaptive behavioral response (i.e. increase of feed intake) of the animals to the low-energy content of the diet.

DOI10.1186/s12864-019-6384-8
Alternate JournalBMC Genomics
PubMed ID31888468
PubMed Central IDPMC6937963
Grant ListANR-13-ADAP / / ANR /
633531 / / European Union /