Comparison of the composition and sensory characteristics of goose fatty liver obtained by overfeeding and spontaneous fattening1.

TitleComparison of the composition and sensory characteristics of goose fatty liver obtained by overfeeding and spontaneous fattening1.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsFernandez, X, Lazzarotto, V, Bernadet, M-D, Manse, H
JournalPoult Sci
Date Published2019 Nov 01

Spontaneous liver steatosis can be experimentally induced in domestic Greylag geese by combining a short photoperiod with a sequence of feed restriction followed by ad libitum corn feeding. This could offer an alternative to the conventional "foie gras" production system based on overfeeding. The present work aimed at comparing the compositional characteristics, sensory profile, and acceptability by a consumer panel of fatty livers obtained by overfeeding and spontaneous fattening. In all, 210 male geese were used: 125 geese were raised over a 31-wk period to produce fatty liver without overfeeding ("alternative livers") and 85 were raised using conventional methods with overfeeding ("conventional livers"). Mean liver weight was over 1 kg (1,102 g) in the conventional group and 445 g in the alternative group. The characteristics of the livers were studied in 2 subpopulations: 44 conventional livers representative of the experimental population (mean liver weight 1,064 g) and 42 alternative livers weighing more than 400 g (mean 702 g). Compared with the alternative livers, livers from the conventional group showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher dry matter and lipid contents, lighter color (L*), and lower yellowness (b*). The neutral lipids of alternative livers contained significantly less triglycerides and free fatty acids and significantly more cholesterol and cholesterol esters than those from conventional livers. Detailed analysis of the fatty acid composition of triglycerides showed that the proportion of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in the alternative livers. However, covariance analysis suggested that these differences in lipid composition were mainly due to differences in lipid content between both types of livers. The evaluation of cooked livers by a trained expert panel revealed significant differences in the sensory profile between the conventional and alternative livers. The acceptability by a consumer panel was significantly lower in alternative compared to conventional livers. This difference was not related to weight and/or lipid content since livers of similar weight range (800 to 1,000 g) were compared and showed clear-cut differences for hedonic scores.

Alternate JournalPoult. Sci.
PubMed ID31162617
PubMed Central IDPMC6771545