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Increased expressions of genes and proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidation and antioxidant pathway in adipose tissue of pigs selected for a low residual feed intake.

TitleIncreased expressions of genes and proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidation and antioxidant pathway in adipose tissue of pigs selected for a low residual feed intake.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsLouveau, I, Vincent, A, Tacher, S, Gilbert, H, Gondret, F
JournalJ Anim Sci
Volume94
Issue12
Pagination5042-5054
Date Published2016 Dec
ISSN1525-3163
Abstract

Adipose tissue is a primary sensor for nutrient availability and regulates many functions including feed intake and energy homeostasis. This study was undertaken to determine the molecular responses of adipose tissue to differences in feed intake and feed efficiency. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between actual and expected feed intake, and from a subset of high-RFI pigs that were feed-restricted at the level of the voluntary feed intake of low-RFI pigs during the growing-finishing period. Transcriptomics analyses indicated that the number of genes that were differentially expressed ( < 0.01) between low- and high-RFI pigs ( = 8 per group at each stage) in adipose tissue was much lower when pigs were considered at 19 kg (postweaning) than at 115 kg BW (market weight). Extended investigations were performed at 115 kg BW to compare low-RFI ( = 8), high-RFI ( = 8), and feed-restricted high-RFI ( = 8) pigs. They included in silico pathway analyses of the differentially expressed (DE) genes ( < 0.01) and a complementary proteomic investigation to list adipose proteins with a differential abundance ( < 0.10). Only 23% of the DE genes were affected by both RFI and feed restriction. This indicates that the responses of adipose tissue to RFI difference shared only some common mechanisms with feed intake modulation, notably the regulation of cell cycle (including ) and transferase activity pathway. Two carboxylesterase genes (, ) involved in lipolysis, were among the most overexpressed genes in the low-RFI pigs; they were also affected by feed restriction within the high-RFI line. About 60% of the molecular changes between low- and high-RFI pigs were specific to genetic divergence in feed efficiency, independently of feed intake. Different genes and proteins known to be associated with mitochondrial oxidative metabolism were overexpressed in adipose tissue of low-RFI pigs compared with high-RFI pigs; other proteins participating in the generation of energy were also affected by feed restriction within the high-RFI line. Finally, mitochondrial antioxidant genes were upregulated in low-RFI pigs vs. high-RFI pigs. Altogether, increased oxidative and antioxidant processes in adipose tissue might be associated with improved feed efficiency.

DOI10.2527/jas.2016-0619
Alternate JournalJ. Anim. Sci.
PubMed ID28046150