|Title||Evolutionary origin of bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth and differentiation factor 9 and differential selective pressure between mono- and polyovulating species.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Monestier, O, Servin, B, Auclair, S, Bourquard, T, Poupon, A, Pascal, G, Fabre, S|
|Date Published||2014 Oct|
Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are TGFbeta-like oocyte-derived growth factors involved in ovarian folliculogenesis as critical regulators of many granulosa cell processes and ovulation rate. Ovarian phenotypic effect caused by alterations in BMP15 and GDF9 genes appears to differ between species and may be relevant to their mono- or polyovulating status. Through phylogenetic analysis we recently showed that these two paralogous genes are strongly divergent and in rapid evolution as compared to other members of the TGFbeta superfamily. Here, we evaluate the amino acid substitution rates of a set of proteins implicated in the ovarian function, including BMP15 and GDF9, with special attention to the mono- or polyovulating status of the species. Among a panel of mono- and polyovulating mammals, we demonstrate a better conservation of some areas in BMP15 and GDF9 within mono-ovulating species. Homology modeling of BMP15 and GDF9 homodimer and heterodimer 3-D structures was suggestive that these areas may be involved in dimer formation and stability. A phylogenetic study of BMP15/GDF9-related proteins reveals that these two genes diverged from the same ancestral gene along with BMP3 and GDF10, two other paralogous genes. A substitution rate analysis based on this phylogenetic tree leads to the hypothesis of an acquisition of BMP15/GDF9-specific functions in ovarian folliculogenesis in mammals. We propose that high variations observed in specific areas of BMP15 and GDF9 in polyovulating species change the equilibrium between homodimers and heterodimers, modifying the biological activity and thus allowing polyovulation to occur.
|Alternate Journal||Biol. Reprod.|