|Title||Production of trans and conjugated fatty acids in dairy ruminants and their putative effects on human health: A review.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Ferlay, A, Bernard, L, Meynadier, A, Malpuech-Brugère, C|
|Date Published||2017 Oct|
|Keywords||Animals, Cattle, Cell Line, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Humans, Linoleic Acids, Conjugated, Lipolysis, Rumen|
Consumption of milk and dairy products is important in Western industrialised countries. Fat content is an important constituent contributing to the nutritional quality of milk and dairy products. In order to improve the health of consumers, there is high interest in improving their fatty acid (FA) composition, which depends principally on rumen and mammary metabolism. This paper reviews the lipid metabolism in ruminants, with a particular focus on the production of trans and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) in the rumen. After the lipolysis of dietary lipids, an extensive biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA occurs by rumen bacteria, leading to numerous cis and trans isomers of 18:1, non-conjugated of 18:2, CLA and CLnA. The paper examines the different putative pathways of ruminal biohydrogenation of cis9-18:1, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and long-chain FA and the bacteria implicated. Then mechanisms relative to the de novo mammary synthesis are presented. Ruminant diet is the main factor regulating the content and the composition of milk fat. Effects of nature of forage and lipid supplementation are analysed in cows and small ruminants species. Finally, the paper briefly presents the effects of these FA on animal models and human cell lines. We describe the properties of ruminant trans 18:1, when compared to industrial trans 18:1, CLA and CLnA on human health from meta-analyses of intervention studies and then explore the underlying mechanisms.